Thursday, December 1, 2016
My current project is to only buy ten items from the store a month and it has to be less than $50 but the rest of my food will come from either local sources, gown by me or by someone I know. One item I will not include in my food list is salt because salt is a necessary nutrient and should not be considered a food item. Oddly, after I had been eating only food I had grown for several months, I no longer craved sugar but salt was a strong craving. I had never craved salt before in my life but my body was telling me I needed it.
A detailed version of my list:
Soy Sauce (10oz) - probably enough for about 3 months
Coffee (22.6oz) - 45 days worth if I only drink a 4cup pot a day
Rice (2lbs) - 15 days at 1/3 cup per day
House Autry cornmeal based seafood breading - for the frozen squash
Vegetable Oil (48oz) - again for the frozen squash
Butter (32tbs) - rationed out to about 1tbs per day it should last a month
Sweet potatoes (10)
Saturday, April 2, 2016
In the beginning God created heaven and earth. I do not believe the biblical creation story is a historical account of the beginning of life, but the myth of Adam and Eve still has deep meaning. Whenever I have to weed the garden I always think, “Cursed is the ground for thy sake… Thorns also and thistles shall bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.“ The thorns and thistles that we are punished with are the little challenges of life. I’ve never heard a sermon on that but I like to think that is what it means. I kind of enjoy weeding the garden. Sometimes I like to think that Eve and Adam were quite bored in a garden that required no work. Imagine all the plants coming up by themselves like winning some sort of garden lottery without real appreciation for the work put in to the planting and caretaking. Gardening would be dull and unchallenging without weeds, thorns, bugs and sometimes bad weather. The weeds of life and the weeds of the garden work in the same way because they keep us challenged and distracted enough to keep us out of trouble.
Gardens are mentioned many times in the Bible. In the Song of Solomon, the woman’s body is compared to various plants. The Garden of Gethsemane literally means “oil press.” I’ve read that there are very old olive trees in that area that can be 900 years old. In the book of Esther the king’s gardens are mentioned quite a bit. In Ecclesiastes, Solomon talks about the beautiful gardens that he had planted. The city of Babylon is written about in the Bible, but I’m not sure that there is mention of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Historians are not sure if the Hanging Gardens were real or poetry. I like to think that the garden was real. There are people who have gardens with only plants that are mentioned in the Bible. I find that an interesting project and it would be a challenge.
Friday, April 1, 2016
|Pea plant wrapping itself around the previous year vine|
Description of an actinobacterium isolate from soil sample taken in the vicinity of the Oconaluftee River, Great Smoky Mountains National Park
12 December 2012
There are over 500 recognized species of Streptomyces, which is a testament to how important the genus is to humans. Many Streptomyces species play important roles in the decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in soil accounting for 106-107 per gram of soil.  The genus is an important source of antibiotics for both animals and plants. The genome of Streptomyces are typically large and that is attributed to the high number of genes required for antibiotic synthesis. Chromosomes are linear, much like eukaryotes, and the chromosomal ends functions similar to the function of telomeres in eukaryotic cells. 
The isolated colony used for the study on the R2A agar was 1-2mm in size with an opaque consistency, circular appearance and curled edges. There was a zone of inhibition around the first colony which was undetectable with subsequent inoculated plates. The isolated colony appeared to change color from white to dark pink-purple with time, possibly due to nutrient depletion of the agar. The cause for the coloration of the colony is due to pigmented conidia and sporophores.  Depending on the composition of the medium, the colony can appear blue, gray, green, red, violet or yellow.  The life cycle of Streptomyces involves sporophores which form cross-walls in the multinucleate sporophores produce conidia also known as conidiospores or spores.  Conidiospores germinate to make substrate mycelium.  Dormant spores can readily be dispersed by air currents.  The colony had a particular earthy odor which was caused by a group of volatile organic compounds known as geosmins. 
Gram staining techniques showed the Streptomyces spp. to be gram-positive. Because gram-positive microorganism have cell walls a thicker layer of peptidoglycan, the crystal violet-iodine complex gets trapped in the cell wall making the cells appear dark purple. A negative staining technique was also performed to enable viewing the microorganism morphology and cellular arrangement. With the aid of a compound light microscope, the microorganism appeared filamentous with diameter sizes of approximately 1µm and a variable length size of up to 80µm. According to data collected about Streptomyces, the filament sizes are typically 0.5-1µm in diameter and indefinite in length. 
Environmental parameter tests were performed to find the optimal environment which the microorganism could grow. The tests showed Streptomyces spp. to be a facultative anaerobe, but the growth was slower than aerobic environments. Temperature parameter testing was used to determine if the Streptomyces spp. could thrive with a range of temperatures. The results showed the species does not tolerate extreme temperatures of 4°C or 50°C and only two of the three streaks grew in 37°C. The microorganism thrived in the control condition of 25°C. A salt tolerance test was performed using concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% NaCl. The Streptomyces spp. is halointolerant and only grew under the control conditions of 0% NaCl. A pH test also conducted and it was found the microorganism can tolerate a range of pH and growth occurring from pH 5-9. The pH test results show the growth of the microorganism in alkaline to neutral soils is more favorable than acidic.
Results from the environmental parameters test demonstrate the variable soil pH the Streptomyces can tolerate. Since the microorganism can tolerate lower oxygen levels as a facultative anaerobe, the depth at which the organism can grow varies. In one study Streptomyces was found in a three different locations of prairie soil at four depths. The study used variation in the 16S rDNA sequence to determine the genetic variation among the Streptomyces strains. There was little variation found in the genetic diversity from the isolates taken at differing soil depths.  An extreme Streptomyces has been isolated from the hyper-arid Atacama Desert. Streptomyces desertai can grow in temperatures from 10°C to 35°C between pH 4 and 11 and in the presence of 4% NaCl. 
A modified catalase test was used to determine if the organism had the enzyme. Because the genus does not typically react with the standard amount used for a slide test, a modification of using more of the sample directly on the R2A plate was used. The Streptomyces spp. tested positive for catalase, which means the microorganism has the ability to convert hydrogen peroxide into water and gaseous oxygen. The microorganism does not have cytochrome c oxidase as a respiratory enzyme because it the results were negative for oxidase test. 
An Enterotube II was used to determine the metabolic characteristics of Streptomyces spp. The test included possible reactions with glucose, adonitol, lactose, arabinose, sorbitol and dulcitol fermentation, lysine and ornithine decarboxylation, sulfur reduction, indole production, acetin production from glucose fermentation, phenylalanine deamination, urea hydrolysis, or citrate utilization. The organism tested positive for the characteristic to ferment glucose and had a slow reaction with hydrolyzing urea. The Streptomyces spp. uses the carbohydrate, glucose, as a sources of carbon and energy. A positive result for the enzyme urease means that the organism hydrolyzes urea to ammonia, CO2 and water. Despite the Streptomyces spp. inability to react with the majority of medium found in the Enterotube II, the microorganism has the ability to decompose biopolymers like lignocellulose, starch, chitin, pectin and latex. 
The rhizosphere zone in the soil profile is defined as the zone of soil that adheres to plant roots. Streptomyces thrive in the rhizosphere zone with the aerobic conditions and loose loamy soil.  With 106-107 Streptomyces per gram of soil, the microorganism is ubiquitous in the rhizosphere. Because of the filamentous mode of growth, the Streptomyces has a competitive advantage in colonizing around plant roots. Streptomyces decompose organic matter such as plant residues, but also benefit plants by growing in close associating with the root system where they protect the plant roots from potential invasion by fungal pathogens. Studies have shown with legumes, the Streptomyces assimilate iron from the soil and transfer it into root nodules where it is assimilated by bacteroids.  Streptomyces virginiae has been found to be beneficial in the prevention of tomato wilt caused by a soil-borne plant pathogen called, Ralstonia solanacearum.  The use of microorganisms to combat plant pathogens is only in the beginning stages, but using biocontrol microbes is considered to be a less invasive alternative to pesticides and fertilizers. The natural antibiotics produced in the rhizosphere are thought to cause less stress on the indigenous microbes when compared with chemical fungicides. Streptomyces can easily colonize the plant root surfaces because of the filamentous growth pattern, they can help protect roots against pathogens and can decompose organic matter. The spores can also be dried, packaged into powdered products making it a potential candidate for future commercial use. 
Within Actinobacteria there are many organisms that have antibacterial and antifungal characteristics. In a study involving fungus-growing termites, antibiotic screening has shown that most Actinobacteria throughout the termite nests produced molecules with antifungal activity. 
The zone of inhibition around the colony in the original first colony collected for this study demonstrated the antibiotic characteristics of the Streptomyces spp. It is interesting to note an organism is sensitive to the antibiotics made by other streptomycetes. The production of antibiotics is poorly understood, but it is linked with sporulation which may be a mechanism to inhibit the growth of nearby organisms competing for resources. There are over 500 distinct antibiotics produced by stretomycetes.  Over half of the commercially produced antibiotics originated from the genus.  Streptomycin and is often used in patients who are allergic to penicillin. The antibiotic Daptomycin is produced by Streptomyces and is used against pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. Streptomyces platensis produces the antibiotic, platensimycin, which is effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureaus and vancomycin resistant enterococci. The first treatment used against tuberculosis originated from Streptomyces griseus.  It is unclear if Streptomyces produce antibiotics in their natural habitat.
A possible change to the study could involve using more cells for the metabolic tests. For example, by using more cells than usually needed for the catalase test, a positive reaction with hydrogen peroxide occurred. Using mediums other than those found in the Enterotube II may result in finding more metabolic characteristics of Streptomyces spp. Studying why the color of the colony changed with age would or possible advantages for the organism to have a variety of colors may be an interesting focus for future studies. Further studies may also include why humans are able to smell the compound and how it could have been useful to humans from an evolutionary perspective.
Sunday, March 27, 2016
"Some people find fall depressing, others hate spring. I’ve always been a spring person myself. All that growth, you can feel Nature groaning, the old bitch; she doesn’t want to do it, not again, no, anything but that, but she has to. It’s a fucking torture rack, all that budding and pushing, the sap up the tree trunks, the weeds and the insects getting set to fight it out once again, the seeds trying to remember how the hell the DNA is supposed to go, all that competition for a little bit of nitrogen; Christ, it’s cruel." John Updike, The Witches of Eastwick
I have read several books by John Updike and I love his sensual somewhat erotic descriptions of otherwise mundane occurrences. In the brief quote above, he calls attention to sap, weeds and insects most people view those things as nuisances.
I’m a little late in writing this post… Easter is directly linked with the first day of spring because it is always the first Sunday, following the full moon, after the spring equinox.
In the northern hemisphere, the beginning of spring is considered to be the time when day and night are roughly equal. I was watching the news on the 1st of March and the weatherman called that day the first day of “meteorological spring” which I had never heard of the term before, but it means the months are divided into three months most closely related to temperature. The three warmest months are summer and the three coldest are winter. In other words, March, April and May are considered to be meteorological spring.
I find it strange that many cultures do not view the spring and vernal equinoxes as a significant time to divide the seasons. The Chinese calendar and Celtic tradition place the first day of spring between the winter solstice and spring equinox or around the beginning of February. Imbolc refers to the Celtic spring with etymology possibly to the old Irish world meaning “in the belly” linking to the lambing season. There are several megaliths in Ireland aligned with the rising sun during the time of Imbolc constructed during the Neolithic Age (≈10,200-2000 BC). It’s interesting to note that Imbolc was also a time for weather divination by watching to see if snakes and badgers came out of their dens. Groundhog Day can almost be considered a type of weather divination and is held roughly the same time as Imbolc. Groundhogs are a little safer to watch than snakes and badgers but native only to North America.
On researching spring, I came across an interesting Gaelic myth about Cailleach she is a weather, ancestor and creator deity. She is considered to be the Queen of Winter and gathers firewood on the Imbolc. If the weather is fair it means she can gather a lot of wood in preparation for creating a long winter. In contrast, if the weather is bad it means Cailleach is still asleep and not gathering firewood so the winter will be short. A specific day is used for weather divination for a season.
|Sugar Snap Pea Sprouts|
I included three photos of how the first day of spring on March 20th looked this year. The pear tree is usually tricked by the first warm spell and blooms early in the season which usually results in no pears because the last frost for where I live is around the beginning of May. The individual blueberry bush is rather early for flowers and was the only one in bloom. Blueberries can handle cold down to around 28°F, and I have yet to have a year without blueberries so they should be fine. Sugar snap peas are extremely cold tolerant and can tolerate quite a bit of snow I sowed the pea seeds on March 7th. Some people in western NC begin them as early as the end of February.
Saturday, January 23, 2016
|Recent Snow Storm|
I spend too much time on social media sites, at least six times a day I log on to fb. It's like I'm addicted to the lives of those around me. I think there is also the psychological need to feel important in other people's lives so sometimes I will post some photos about what I'm doing. I posted the picture above because it is informative to those who live where I do and are considering driving through town to get to work, but mostly anytime spent on social media is a distraction with a lot of visual noise. I have recently been keeping track of my online time and it amounts to an average of about 25hrs a week of finding useless information. Occasionally I do find something that inspires me to write an article or expand an idea, but the vast majority of my online time is really just a waste and adds to a certain amount of frustration in my life. I often hear that we live in the information age but really I think we live in the age of distraction. What are we distracted from, though?
Saturday, October 10, 2015
|The Leech Place|
Western NC is filled with Cherokee stories with almost every mountain, river, animal, plant and location having a story behind it. James Mooney’s “History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee” is an excellent source of information about the area. I grew up living near the Cherokee Indian Reservation. My mother taught at the elementary school on the Reservation for a couple of decades and loved her job. She has a huge collection of Native American books. My childhood was surrounded by a combination of Cherokee folklore, Sundays with Bible stories and the living room bookshelf full of Norse myths.
I have come to realize that myths and legends make the most sense when one lives in the area they are being told. The environment where the story originated influenced the meaning behind it. We do things all the time that really are not connected to anything other than family tradition. For example, my family stands outside on New Year’s Eve and rings bells. We have cow bells and a huge dinner bell attached to the front porch. We are the only people in the neighborhood who perform this noisy tradition every year. It wasn’t until I spent a New Year’s Eve in Munich, Germany that our actions finally made sense because all of the church bells in the city ring in the New Year. My mother’s family came from Germany around 150 years ago and here we had been ringing bells ever since without the connection to the churches.
Recently I visited Murphy, NC which has its own Cherokee legend of a huge leech that lived in the bottom of a deep pool where the Hiwassee and Valley rivers join. Hiwassee is a Cherokee word for large meadow or savanna and according to Mooney, there is not a special story connected with the name other than it applied to two former settlements on the stream. The photo shows the remnants of a stone footbridge leading across the river and beneath that is where the “Great Leech” is said to live. The leech is described as having red and white stripes along its body and is as big as a house. On the one river bank is a steep rock cliff. The story goes that some men were walking on the trail above the pool and saw the leech roll and unroll on a rock and then crawl back down into the water out of sight, and the water then began to boil and foam until a huge column of water shot straight up in the air. According to the legend, the waterspout could be so strong as to carry a person down into the hole and that more than one person was found lying on the riverbank with their ears and nose eaten off. Another story is told of a man who wanted to hunt the leech and is said to have crossed the river halfway when a great wave overtook him and he was swept under never to be seen again.
Written on a sign just above the river it mentions that there is a vein of red and white marble at the bottom of the pool which is visible with low amounts of sediment, so the location of the marble may have influenced the myth. We also have to realize that his river has been modified since the folklore behind the story originated. This river has been dammed and altered that I’m sure a few hundred years ago this was an extremely dangerous place to be and people actually drowned here.
Tuesday, October 6, 2015
Der Schmied von Kochel
Yesterday I wrote about the strong men of myth and these stories exist throughout all cultures. Viking legends are filled with men who single handedly guarded a bridge or something similar and killed dozens of men. This is a statue of “Der Schmied von Kochel” I found him outside of a small church when I lived in Munich many years ago. I can’t remember which church the statue is near, but it is outside of tourist central so if you go to Munich you probably won’t find it. I miss going for long walks through Germany finding history and stories.
My German is very bad and I can only find the story in German, so I’ll translate the best that I can. Der Schmied von Kochel means the Blacksmith of Kochel. He is a legendary figure for Munich. During the Sendlinger Mordweihnach or the Sendlinger Christmas Slaughter in 1705 he was the last man standing in a battle at the gate of Sendlinger where around 1,100 men died by the Austrian King Joseph I army. The blacksmith is described as a 70-year old and was of great stature and strength. According to Muenchenwiki he was not a real person but a legend. From another site it says his last words were, “lieber bayerisch sterben als kaiserlich verderben“ which means something like “Love for Bayern, death and ruin to the Kaiser.” He is a symbol for the love and honor to his homeland. There are still festivals and plays dedicated to him. If he didn’t exist there was a need to create him. I said in an earlier post all history somehow becomes myth. I hold myths in very high regard it doesn’t matter if they are true or not it only matters that they are told, and an important message is always hidden under the surface. In the German language the word Geschichte is the word for both history and story.